Sunday, January 26, 2020

Brazilian Culture And Society

Brazilian Culture And Society The Portuguese populated Brazil in 16th century introduce African slaves to the nation. Further European, Asian, Middle Eastern group have departured established in this country. The native Guarani and Tupi citizens are also included in the people as well. In the present day Brazil has a relatively different background ethnicity too. As seen the language used by Brazilians quite varies. Brazilian Language Brazil Culture Society: Brazilian Multiplicity: Brazil is a blend of race ethnicities, resultant in prosperous multiplicity. Numerous unique Portuguese settlers wedded local women, which formed a original race, call mestizos who be descendents of the Portuguese African slaves. Slavery was abolished in 1888, created over instance an additional blur of cultural outline. Brazilian had intermarried to the tip that it at times seem too approximately everybody has a blend of African, European resident parentage. Brazilians Family unit ethics: The family is base of societal construction form the foundation of constancy for most citizens. Family tends to be big and the wide-range family is relatively close. The individual derive a social network support in era of necessitate from the family. Discrimination is considered as an optimistic thing while it implies that by employing individual one knows trust is of prime importance. The Brazilians Class System: In spite of mixing of ethnicities here is a class system in Brazil. The minority Brazilians possibly will describe as racially prejudiced even though community unfairness on the base of outer covering color is every day happening. On the whole group of darker brown skin people are economically and socially underprivileged. The Middle as well as Upper class groups frequently has only make short contact with the Lower class groups i.e. typically drivers, maids etc. Lower Class is resolute by economic status as well as skin color. There is an immense differentiation in earnings differential so the lifestyle social aspiration amongst the different classes. Even though women being 40% of the Brazilians workforce they are only found in lower salaried job i.e. Teaching, Nursing Administrative support. In 1988 establishment prohibit preferential treatment not in the favor of womens but inequality still continue living. The one place where women have achieved e quality is in government. Etiquettes and Customs in Brazil Meeting Etiquette: Men shake hands while greeting one another and maintain stable eye contact. Women in general kiss each other initiate with the left and irregular cheeks. Hug Backslapping are ordinary greetings among Brazilians friends. And in case if a woman desires to shake hands with a man then she needs to extend her hand initially. Gift Giving Etiquettes: If invited at Brazilians residence, get the hostess flowers or can even get a small gift. Orchids are considered to be one of the best gifts but always avoid the purple ones. Keep away from giving anything that is black or purple as these are sorrow colors. Even handkerchiefs are associated with funeral so it does not make good gift. Dining Etiquette: whenever you are invited to a Brazilians residence arrive at least 30 minutes before the given time for dinner where in there is a party or gathering arrive atleast 1hr late. They dress-up with a style judge others on their looks. Always dress sophisticatedly and go wrong on the side of over-dressing instead for under- dressing. If you dont get a gift to the hostess then too next day flowers are always appreciated. Business Etiquettes and Protocol in Brazil Communication Relationships: Brazilians need to understand as in how they are doing business with before they work successfully. Brazilians are in favor of personal meetings to written communication as it helps them to understand the individual with whom they do business. The personality they deal with is more significant than the company. As this is a group culture so it is important that you do nothing to disgrace a Brazilian. Criticizing an individual personality makes the person to lose face with in front of others in meeting. The one who makes the criticism also loses face as someone has disrespected the unwritten rule. Communication is at times informal does not depend on strict rules of protocol. Anybody who feels that he/she has something to say will normally add their view. It is considered good enough to disturb someone who is doing verbal communication. Here head to head verbal communication is favored over the on paper communication. But at the similar time when it comes to business agreement Brazilians claim on drawing up detailed legal contracts. Business Negotiation: Brazilians are more satisfied doing business with the people company they already know. Wait for your Brazilian colleagues to move up the business matter. Never rush the relationship- building occasion. Brazilians take time when there is a chance of negotiation. Do not rush them or seem to be annoyed. Expect an immense deal of time to be exhausted review information. It often happens that the people with whom you negotiate with will not have supervisory authority. It is always sensible to appoint a translator if youre Portuguese is not smooth. Use local lawyer accountant for discussions. Brazilians resent an external legal presence. Brazilians business is hierarchical. Decisions are always made by the highest-ranking individual. Brazilians discuss with people not with company. Never change the negotiation team you have choose before or you will have to start it all again from the beginning. Business Meeting Etiquettes: Business activities are essential can frequently be listed on short notice however it is considered best to make them in advance by two to three weeks. Authenticate the meeting in written. It is not unusual for the appointments to get cancelled or altered at the end moment. In Brasilia Sao Paulo it is very essential to arrive on time for meetings. Where as in Rio de Janeiro other cities it is appropriate if u arrive a bit late in meeting. Do not seem to be irritated if you are kept waiting. Brazilians perceive time as something outside their control demands of relationships takes priority over adhere to a strict schedule. Meetings are in general rather informal. Expect to be interrupted whereas you are talking or making a presentation even avoid confrontation. Never appear to be frustrated in front of your Brazilian colleagues. Dress Etiquettes: Brazilians feel pride on themselves by dressing well. Men should always wear conventional, dark colored business suit. As the three-piece suit typically indicate that someone is a director. Women should always wear suits or dresses which look elegant feminine with fine quality of accessories. Manicures are always expected. Business Cards: Business cards are always exchanged during introduction with each one at a meeting. It is sensible to have the additional business card which is being translated into Portuguese. Present the business card with the Portuguese side facing the beneficiary. Social issues in Brazil Poverty: Poverty in Brazil is on the whole visually represented by various faceless, slums in the countries urban areas remote upcountry region that undergo through economic underdevelopment below similar standard of living. An attempt to lessen these problems is the Fome Zero hunger-eradication program [2]implemented by the President Luiz Inà ¡cio Lula da Silva in the year 2003. Part of this is Bolsa Famà ­lia a most important anti-poverty program which provides money directly to the impoverished families to keep their kids in schools. The Government of Lulas compact the poverty rate by 19.8% based on labour income during the year June 2002 June 2006 according to Fundaà §Ãƒ £o Getà ºlio Vargas. In the year June 2006, 18.57% was rate of depression of inhabitants. The rate of poverty is in division credited to the countries economic differences. In the Gini coefficient index Brazil ranks 49.3% with the richest 10% of Brazilians receiving 42.7% of the nations earnings while the poorest 10% obtain less than 1.2% only. In the Gini coefficient index of inequality assessment Brazil ranks worlds highest. A study on the subject show that the poor part constitute approximately one third of the population the extremely poor make out about 13% 2005 figures. However the same study shows the income growth of the poorest 20% inhabitants segment to be almost in equality with China where as the richest 10% are stagnate. Reduction: Brazil might achieve social indicator similar to that of developed nations by 2016 if the country is capable enough to maintain the similar rate of reduction of intense poverty income disparity as recorded in the year 2003 to 2008. By the similar token the country may record an absolute shortage rate of 4%. The information was taken from a file issued by The Institute of Applied Economic Research linked to Secretariat of Strategic Affairs of the Presidency of the Republic. Public is considered exceptionally poor who earn up to 25% of one minimum wage for each month whereas the utterly poor earn up to 50% of one minimum wage for each month. If we make a projection of the finest performance lately recorded in Brazil in terms of poverty inequality reduction 2003-2008 period to the year of 2016 the result would be a very optimistic social viewpoint. Brazil may practically overcome the problem of intense poverty as well as accomplish a national total poverty rate of only 4% w hich means its near-eradication, the article states. The mass of the advancement achieve by Brazil in fighting poverty inequality is moreover directly or indirectly connected to the structuring of public policies of social intervention provided for in the federal constitution of 1988. The Ipea even points out three additional important factors to combating poverty inequality they are: Increase in social expenditure in the country which went from 19% of the Gross Domestic Product in 1990 to 21.9% of the GDP in 2005. Delegation of social policy with an inclusive role played by municipalities in the implementation of social policies as their contribution of social expenses rose 53.8% from the year 1980 to 2008. Social participation in the formatting management of social policies. According to the institution the institutional consolidation of the framework of social laws in Brazil would be a significant step towards maintaining in coming years the brawl against scarcity disparity in the country. It is essential that a new law be passed regulating social responsibility assure with funds, goals, coordination timetable .So that Brazil may attain social indicator alike to those presently seen in urban country. All of that must obviously obtain place with no backlash in conditions of contribution of society in the monitoring, formatting control of public policies. The Brazil Federal Government has also implemented expanded major subsidy programs in last few years such as Fome zero bolsa familia. It is for families deemed to be in the need of help support. Brazil has severe trouble with offence. It is roughly 23.8 homicides for each 1,00,000 inhabitants, muggings, robbery, kidnapping gang aggression are very common. Police brutality corruption are common. In response to all this the Brazilian Government established The National Public Security in June 2004 by the ministry of justice to do something in situation of urgent situation in times of disaster. CULTURAL ASPECT Heritage: In Brazil the National Institute for Historic and Artistic Heritage1 keeps documentation of buildings certified as historic urban centers, structures condominiums, archaeological sites, over one million stuff including a cinematographic, a thousand bibliographic volumes, musicological collection, archival documentation, video graphic records photographic in addition to that the Worldwide Heritage. The Iphan classify the Cultural Heritage of Brazil into two groups: Intangible Heritage: It is the one whose representation, information, practices, expressions techniques, items, artifacts, instruments sites are acknowledged by the community as an essential part of their cultural heritage. It is agreed on from age group to age group it is continuously recreated by community based on their surroundings i.e. communication with nature history. This procedure generates a feeling of individuality continuity. The Brazilian catalogue of intangible assets includes the Samba Centers in Rio de Janeiro ,the feasts Cà ­rio de Nossa Senhora de Nazarà ©, Frevo (Dance), Feira de Caruaru, the handicraft form of preparing the Minas Cheese ,Capoeira (Martial Art). Tangible Heritage: It comprises of the combination of cultural assets classified in accordance to their nature in the four Books of Certified Historic structure:- Applied arts and archaeology Historic Landscape and ethnography. Fine arts. The material assets comprises of the Architectural combination of historic cities:- Ouro Preto (MG) Paraty (RJ) Olinda (PE) Grutas do Lago Azul and Nossa Senhora Aparecida (Bonito MS) The Corcovado (Rio de Janeiro RJ) Sà £o Luà ­s (MA) landscapes such as Lenà §Ãƒ ³is (BA) Serra do Curral (Belo Horizonte MG). Literature Brazils poetry, drama fiction account for about partially the literary output of Latin America planned by the amount of title of individual books. Bookish advancement in Brazil approximately follows the countries most important chronological period characterize frequently by writing in the Baroque Arcadian styles The National Period since 1822. Many prominent writers of the Colonial Period were Jesuits who got fascinated by the new land its native inhabitants. Writers Year Creation Gregà ³rio de Matos 1623 to1696 Poetry layered on lyricism and mysticism Josà © de Alencar 1829 to 1877 Iracema about Indians, O Guarani, a historical novel, and novels on regional, social, and urgan affairs Castro Alves 1847 to 1871 Wrote about African slaves Gonà §alves Dias 1823 to 1864 Who wrote about Indians Tomà ¡s Antà ´nio Gonzaga 1744 to 1810 Lyric and epic poems Raimundo Correa 1860 to 1911 Parnassian triad Manuel Antà ´nio de Almeida 1831 to 1861 Initiating picaresque literature in Brazil Joaquim Manuel de Macedo 1820 to 1882 A Moreninha, a popular story Alfredo dEscragnolle Taunay 1843 to 1899 Inocà ªncia Olavo Billac 1865 to 1918 Parnassian triad The prose of Euclides da Cunha 1866-1908 was committed to be a Brazilian literature portrays social realities. Machado de Assis 1839-1908 widely acclaim as the greatest Brazilian novelist of 19th century. Machado de Assis was unique because of the universality of his novel essays is considered one of the most vital influential writers of fiction in Brazil. In the beginning of the 20th century innovative state of mind imbued Brazilian artists culminating in the celebration in Sà £o Paulo of The 1922 Week of Modern Art held. These new way thoughts propelled an artistic revolution that appealed to the feelings of pride for national ancestry, folklore history. The leader of the literary phase was Mà ¡rio de Andrade from 1893-1945 who wrote Brazilian folklore, poems, fine art, essay on literature, melody Macunaà ­ma which he named rhapsody not a novel. The writer Oswald de Andrade from 1890-1953 wrote a collection of poetries entitled Pau-Brazil which assess Brazil culture, superstition, first time in Brazilian poems with hilarity. Jorge Amado first novelist who translated into 33 languages were heavily prejudiced by his belief in Marxist thoughts concentrated on the suffering of workforce on the cocoa plantation which had received worldwide approval. There are few other significant Brazilian writers. They are as follows: Gilberto Freyre from the year 1900 to1987 is author of Casa Grande Senzala i.e. The Masters and The Slaves. It is a perceptive learning of Brazilian society. Joà £o Cabral de Melo Neto the best known Brazilian poets. His poems are sober ,he also uses terms with the precision in building material. Vinicius de Moraes known worldwide from the year 1913to1980. His poems became part parcel of the bossa nova musical movement which is produced to be a new style of samba the classically Brazilian beat. And also wrote play i.e. Orfeu da Canceicao, it became internationally famous as film Black Orpheus. List of Poet Novelist who are Living or Recently Deceased: Living or recently deceased novelist Living or recently deceased poet Orà ­genes Lessa Raul Bopp Adonias Filho Murilo Mendes Érico Verà ­ssimo Augusto Frederico Dinah Silveira de Queiroz Schmidt Lygia Fagundes Telles Mà ¡rio Quintana Herberto Sales Cassiano Ricardo Rubem Fonseca Jorge de Lima Clarice Lispector Ferreira Gullar Dalton Trevisan Cecà ­lia Meireles Nà ©lida Pià ±on Augusto de Campos Osman Lins Haroldo de C Paulo Coelho Moacir Scliar Music Brazils origins the Indians with red flutes Portuguese with singers viola players, and the Africans with their many thrilling rhythms make it a musical country. From the classical compositions of Villa-Lobos, to the soft sounds of bossa nova to the driving beat of samba, Brazil has developed music of striking sophistication, quality, and diversity. The Jesuits made use of the music to catechize the Indians by replacing the original words with religious ones using the Tupi language. They also introduced the Gregorian chant and taught the flute, bow instruments, and the clavichord. Music accompanied the sacramental ceremonies which were performed in village and church plazas. Dance called Lundu used by Negro slaves is considered to be one of the most importan. It was one of the popular musical forms it was even sung in the Portuguese C musicourt. In the second half of the l8th century during the 19th century the sentimental love song called the modinha was popular it was sung both in Brazils salons. By the end of the century, Carlos Gomes from the year 1836 to 1896 produced a number of operas in the existing Italian fashion especially Il Guarany an opera ease on a well-known Brazilian novel by Josà © de Alencar. The first Brazilian composer Brasà ­lio Itiberà ª from the year 1848 to 1913 was to use a well-liked national motif in erudite music. In the year 1869 he composed A Sertaneja which was played by Franz Liszt has remained active in the piano repertoire. Brazils popular music developed similar to the classical music it also united traditional European instruments guitar, piano flute with a whole rhythm part of sound produced by frying pan, tiny barrels with a membrane a stick inside that make wheezing sounds tambourines. In the period of 1930 popular Brazilian music played on radio became powerful means of mass communication. The best composers of the period 1903 to 2963 were: Noel Rosa Lamartine Babo Ary Barroso In the year 1968 during the period of autocracy, urban guerrillas anxiety of about how to alter the political structure. The Tropicalists appear Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil Gal Costa. Tropicalism is described as a combination of national rhythms along with international music. He has his own creations and they are Lyrical, intellectual with faster tempos fuller rhythms than bossa nova. Brazils popular regional music includes the forrà ³ from northeast region where the accordion the flute join guitars percussion in a foot-stomping countryside dance. The frevo also from the northeast region which has a lively simple style. the chorinho from Rio which combines various type size of guitar, flutes, percussions an occasional clarinet or saxophone in a tender form of instrumental music international successful lambada. Lambada dance got its name from Portuguese. Labana is a sensual fast paced dance form; it is named out of a Portuguese verb which means to whip or flog which means smacking of the thigh alongside another thigh. Samba is one of the most seductive and popular rhythm of Brazil. The exact origin of samba is still a mystery. It is still said that samba has originate in the streets of Rio de Janeiro and it also had the contribution from various other cultures such as Portuguese nation songs, African tunes, and one of the Indian fast footwork. It is believed that samba is just an African origin and that it is evolve from the batuque, it is a music based done by beating instruments and hand clapping. Now a days Brazilian music had become popular is exploring new rhythms melodies. Its interpreters and composer use all possible sources to grab different kinds of music in the Brazilian songs so as to make Brazilian music more famous and popular to its world audience. Some of its famous performers are as under: Maria Bethania. Alcione Roberto Carlos. Cazuza, Ney Matogrosso Rita Lee Milton Nascimento Hermeto Pascoal Fafà ¡ de Belà ©m Chità £ozinho and Chororà ³ Elba Ramalho Alceu Valenà §a Luiz Gonzaga Luiz Gonzaga Jr. Joà £o Bosco Djavan Ivan Lins Marisa Monte Elis Regina. brazilian music ARTIST ARE PERFORMING A DANCE ON BRAZILLIAN MUSIC

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Project Managers

With the rapid advances currently being made in information technology there has now become an increased need for Project Managers. The scale and number of projects has increased thereby increasing the risk associated with these projects. With this in mind the choosing of project managers with the required skills to ensure the successful completion of projects has become critical and organizations have recognized that the choosing of the right individual to lead a project can have a significant bearing on the success of the organization. There are countless project management certifications, methodologies and text books that give their own interpretation of what us considered a â€Å"best practice† and every methodology can bring value if applied appropriately. Methodologies are better viewed as valuable frameworks or toolkits from which a skilled and experienced Project Manager can select the relevant components, probably different components for different projects, and apply them where appropriate, not just for the sake of it or because it says so in the manual. So, if the methodologies and certifications only make up a part of the profile of a good project manager, what the other attributes and traits do we consider to be most important in a project manager?AdaptabilityAn often-used word, but project managers need to be able to react to change. They need to be dynamic, flexible and adaptable. Of course, setting out a comprehensive plan, with clear dependencies, milestones and completion dates is a key part of project planning but if all that was required to be a successful project manager was to set out a plan at the outset and then sit at the tiller and gently steer the project team through the plan, everybody would be doing it. When the inevitable happens and the risk becomes an issue, or the customer changes their requirement, or a key engineer resigns, this is when good project managers really come into their own. The ability to react quickly, to have an answer before most people have even realized what the question is and to have a contingency plan, a Plan B and a Plan C sets good project managers apart.PragmatismThe Project Manager who constantly falls back on, or some might say hides behind, process is unlikely to prosper in the real world. We'd all like to deliver our projects to the letter of a recognized methodology, but if it was as simple as just obtaining a PRINCE2 or Agile certification and then carrying the manual around with you, good project managers wouldn't command the salaries they do. A successful project manager will balance the essential process and rigor with the need to be pragmatic at times and to bend the rules occasionally. There's no room for mavericks when delivering large enterprise projects, and we'd recommend that doing things outside of process first receives the endorsement of somebody with appropriate authority, but when rigidly adhering to process means that you miss a customer delivery deadline that you would otherwise have hit, possibly with financial or reputational implications, that's the time when an experienced and aware project manager will propose the pragmatic approach.Logical Mind-setThe ability to look ahead and logically fit together the pieces of a complex implementation is of great value to a project manager. A bigger picture view and understanding of dependencies and why certain activities need to be sequential makes project planning a lot easier and significantly increases the likelihood that a plan is accurate and effective. Some of the best technical and innovative minds, the types of individual that are key to delivering technology, are hopelessly devoid of organization and methodical thinking. The project manager has to bring the logical outlook that pulls it all together, and a strong project manager will have the confidence to challenge the thinking of the most brilliant engineer if he or she is failing to look beyond their own small area of the overall implementation.CommunicationNo surprises here. Most project managers would list communication as one of the most important aspects of project management. Indeed, most project management methodologies dedicate specific coverage to communication and the Comms Plan. How and to whom a project manager communicates is vitally important. All projects should set out at the outset how they will formally report progress, risk ; issues, exceptions and escalations. This is the formal part. In addition to this, a good project manager will make sure that key stake holders always have just enough information but not too much and are never caught in a position where the first they know of an issue or problem is when the customer escalates it to them. Different stakeholders like different approaches and the project manager needs to quickly establish how best to communicate informally with stakeholders, be it email, phone, walking over to their desk, or a chat at the coffee machine. An important point made verbally is always best followed up in writing.RelationshipsGood relationships go a long way when trying to achieve project success. The project manager who invests time into building relationships with key players will find themselves well positioned when the pressure is on and it's necessary to ask more of the project team, or when relationships with clients become strained due to delivery challenges. Ten minutes invested in providing counsel to a frustrated engineer, showing some empathy and letting him get a few gripes off his chest, can pay dividends when you need that same engineer to work late on a Friday night to get an installation finished. It's not just relationships with key contributors in the project team that are important. Forming a strong relationship with a delivery counterpart within the client's organization is also important. When you're both in front of the customer's programme sponsor at the monthly steering board and the meeting isn't going well due to challenges or delays on the project, you'd rather be side by side and aligned with your client counterpart, who reports into that programme sponsor, than be the individual who gets hung out to try and made a scapegoat.Political AwarenessMany a talented project manager has fallen down or been made the scapegoat for project failure because they didn't get to grips with the politics of either their own organization or that of the customer. A good understanding of when to speak, when to just keep your head down and listen, who to trust, who to be wary of, who you must keep on the right side of and where the real power and authority resides will all increase a project manager's chance of success. Let's be completely honest, sometimes a project is just going to fail, regardless of who the project manager is. A project manager who can navigate the political landscape (as well as having a lot of the other traits we list here) will emerge from a challenged project with their reputation intact, possibly even enhanced. A project manager who neglects this area runs the risk of being made the fall-guy and going down with the sinking ship. Some of this only comes with experience, and there are very few project and programme managers who would honestly tell you that they hadn't been burnt by organizational politics at some stage in their career.AuthoritativeAnother area that sometimes only comes with experience, but being authoritative, or at least giving the impression of being calm and in control, even when you haven't got all of the answers, will inspire calm and confidence in stakeholders and project team members. Nothing erodes customer confidence or encourages an angry client to go for the jugular like a project manager who mutters his way through an update or shows uncertainty and hesitation when answering a difficult question.Inclination to question and challengeThe project manager who takes everyone and everything at face value runs the risk of having the wool pulled over their eyes. Of course , delegation is a key aspect of project management and whilst having overall accountability, the project manager cannot take responsibility for everything. But as a project manager, the ability to quickly identify the right questions to ask, who and when to challenge, and who and when you can trust is another key trait. As a Project Manager, you never want to be in a position where your senior stakeholder or customer is asking the questions that you should have asked yourself or is asking you questions that you can't answer because you haven't asked the right questions of your team.Delegate but keep controlThere is a place, on small, simple, projects for the â€Å"player manager† to use sporting parlance, the individual who does some basic project management as well as being responsible for actually carrying out some of the actions. Similarly, its sometimes valuable when a project finds itself in â€Å"all hands-on deck† mode if the project manager can roll up his sleeve and start crawling under desks to trace cables, deploy handsets or drive a piece of kit from one site to another. However, typically a project manager can't afford to be in the detail of configuring equipment, taking part in the physical installations or touching kit. A project manager incapable of staying out of the weeds will eventually fall foul of this because they will neglect the true project management responsibilities and tasks that they should be carrying out. A project manager needs to establish the governance and rules with project team members in terms of what they need to be made aware of and what they are happy to delegate and leave in the hands of the project resource who owns the action.ExperienceUnfortunately for any new project managers on the block, the reality is that the big jobs normally go to project managers who have been around the block a few times. Not what you want to hear when you're trying to break into project management but, arguably more so than in a lot of other disciplines, the best project managers have normally been doing it for a while. An installation technician can leave the training lab knowing all they need to know about how to physically rack and stack kit and connect it to the network. An engineer can attend a training course on how to configure a switch or router. Individuals with the appropriate training can be immediately effective in these types or roles, even if they have little or no real-world experience. Clearly there are enough project managers around to demonstrate that a lack of experience isn't an absolute barrier to entry but if we're talking about the best project managers, those who are entrusted with the complex projects and the high-profile clients, experience plays a major part. With experience, all of the other traits on this list are likely to be developed and enhanced to a higher level. When a challenge arises, the experienced project manager who has seen the same or similar situations before is more likely to have learned the lessons and gained first-hand knowledge of what will work and what won't work. Sadly, for those looking to enter project management and go straight to the top of the pile, you can't teach experience.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare Field

Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare field The Many Faces of Healthcare Cultural Diversity in the Healthcare Field Carl Hooks Rasmussen College Author Note This research is being submitted on September 16, 2010, for Vicky Philips English class at Rasmussen College by Carl Hooks Cultural diversity in the medical field is, at times, greatly hindered because of religious beliefs, language barriers, and the hierarchies of diverse cultures and these have the propensity to affect the continuity of care for the patients. â€Å"Every person has different aspects that constitute their identities, according to how they see themselves†¦.This means that seeing an individual in terms of their identity can be unproductive. † (Weaver, 2009). Nursing personnel, in particular, have to take into consideration any and all cultural differences between the patient and the nursing staff. These differences vary in as many ways as there are different ethnic groups in any particular area. Religio us beliefs can hinder the nursing care of patients. There are many different religious beliefs in as many different religions. The religious belief most common in the United States, of course, is the Jehovah Witness who refuses transfusions.This religion has a strong belief in preserving the soul before the body. Other religions have other beliefs that we may not understand, but need to respect and try to work around to care for the patient. â€Å"If people believe it is God who confers both health and illness, it may be very difficult to get them to take their medication or change their behavior†¦. they would see no point worrying about high blood pressure or bacteria when moral behavior is the key to good health. † (Galanti, 2001). This kind of belief will impede the medical staff and their approach to a medical cure.Whenever possible, staff should attempt of incorporate both religious beliefs and medicine to care for the patient. For the most part (miracles do happen) , religious beliefs can delay the care and health of the patient, and leaves the health professionals with a huge dilemma about what to do, and greatly delays the healing process. To understand how religion plays a role in the care given to the patient is to give better care for our patients. Consequently, the vast majority of people do believe in some sort of religion, whether it is God or some other higher power. Cultural factors stemming from religious beliefs and practices can have an intense impact on health. † (Abdoul and Abdoul, 2010). There may come a time when the medical staff has to provide a towel (prayer matt) and a quiet place to pray to a culture that does not consider the common hospital chapel an appropriate place to pray.In some religious, â€Å"It is commonly believed that illness is sent from God as retribution for sins since God is viewed as the afflicter as well as healer. † (Abdoul and Abloul,2010). Food also plays a big part in some religions whi ch go beyond the traditional Jewish mother’s chicken soup. †¦. it is important to know that religious beliefs and practices can influence food choice, as there may be individuals within a group that observe strict dietary requirements. † (Black, 2010). All religious back grounds should be taken into consideration and, whenever possible, be provided for, and this will aid in promoting effective health care. Language barriers pose great difficulties when communicating with patients. It is imperative that both patient and nursing staff understand exactly what is being said. For this reason an appropriate trained or certified interpreter should be utilized whenever possible.Health care workers are experiencing more language difficulties than ever before. â€Å"Fully 54 million Americans†¦. roughly 20 percent of the population†¦. do not speak English at home. † (Armand and Hubbard,2010). With the exception of California, Texas, and Florida, which have o ver 43 percent of the population, that are classified LEP (limited English proficient). The interpreter should be trained to interpret on the patients behalf. Family members, at times, can be of great assistance, but then HIPPA comes into play.The patient may not want a particular family member to know about their health problems. The language barrier does inhibit sufficient care, and this should be addressed with the utmost of care and consideration for both the medical staff and patient. Insuring that the patient fully understands what is being done to them is of great importance. As patients, they have the right to understand what is being done and why. Informed consent must be given; the patient should be able to repeat what they have been informed of before the procedure is done. Currently â€Å"only 33 percent of U.S. hospitals have quality improvement efforts underway to improve the quality of their language access programs. † (Armand and Hubbard, 2010). The goal of th e interpreter is to assure that the LEP patient has no doubts or concerns and totally understands what is going to happen, why, and any options they may have. Understanding the hierarchy of the family is imperative in understanding the functions of the family unit. With some familiarity with the different cultures in a given community, a medical professional will be able to ascertain who the head of the household is.The head of the household differs from culture to culture, as such, â€Å"misunderstandings which include but are not limited to the involvement of the male in all aspects of health care for his wife and children; the assimilation of children into all aspects of life; female humility; the subordinate status of women; and the strong emphasis on traditional female role. (Abdoul and Abdoul, 2010). By defining who the head of the household is and giving them the respect they deserve will be paramount in a speedy recovery for the patient.As the head of the household is ident ified, it is very important that they are included in all of the decisions made on behalf of the patient. If and when the controlling person is not readily available, all efforts should be exercised to contact that person. In rare life threatening conditions should medical personnel proceed without that persons consent, the head of the household should be given adequate time to discuss procedures with the patient should they require this. His/her decision should be respected when they decide what is appropriate for their family member.Given the most pertinent information and options, the family can then make an informed decision and the respect of the hierarchy of the family has not been compromised. All diversities should be taken into consideration when caring for a patient. By understanding what importance the patient puts on their culture, the medical staff can better serve the patient. â€Å"Hospitals can be a source of stress and frustration for patients and their families, s ince they are most vulnerable when they are there and are placed at the mercy of values and beliefs not of their own. † (Galanti, 2001).Making a patient aware that medical staff understands and will do all that is possible to adhere to their cultural differences can only aid in providing the best health care possible. A care plan is always done for patients when they are admitted to the hospital. While formulating a care plan, the nurse should always consider and provide for the cultural differences of the individual. The care plan should be reviewed by all staff that participates in the care of the patient. The care plan should be discussed with the patient and family to assure that all aspects of their cultural practices have been addressed.If this is not done, then the patient’s outcome can be greatly hampered. Cultural diversity in the medical field, at times, can be greatly hindered because of religious beliefs, language barriers, and the hierarchy of diverse cultu res, and these have the propensity to affect the continuity of care for the patient. All aspects need to be considered to assure that the most efficient care be given on behalf of the patient.References ABOUL-ENEIN, B. , & AHOUL-ENEIN, F. (2010). THE CULTURAL GAP DELIVERING HEALTH CARE SERVICES TO ARAB AMERICAN POPULATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 17(1), 20-23. Retrieved from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database Armada, A. , & Hubbard, M. (2010). Diversity in Healthcare: Time to Get REAL!. Frontiers of Health Services Management, 26(3), 3-17. Retrieved from EBSCO MegaFILE database. Black, P. (2010). Cultural and religious beliefs in stoma care nursing. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 4(4), 184-188. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database. Weaver, D. (2009). Respect the diversity and difference of individuals. Nursing & Residential Care, 11(12), 590-593. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.